When oxidized it yields benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, two important intermediates. As an inhalant, toluene is known to have euphoric and dissociative effects. Leukoencephalopathy of toluene abuse is evident on MRI scans and on postmortem examinations.23. Industrial emissions, car exhausts, and cigarette smoke (cigarettes contain about 80 μg/cigarette) are three large sources of atmospheric toluene. 1. PDF | On May 1, 2017, H. Cruz Tabuenca and others published Orthostatic tremor secondary to recreational use of solvents | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate More recently, however, the ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene below 50 ppm was investigated in a longitudinal study over 5 years with four repeated examinations starting with 333 male workers from rotogravure printing plants (Schaper et al. The EPA has labeled toluene as an HAP and a toxic substance. Toluene is one of a group of fuels that have included in jet fuel surrogate blends. Toluene has also been shown to be ototoxic in laboratory animals at much lower concentrations. Three external MSAs are considered: air (S2) for stripping, activated carbon (S2) for adsorption, and a solvent extractant (S3). It has largely been replaced by a safer solvent; Xylol Xylene. People inhale toluene-containing products (e.g., paint thinner, contact cement, model glue, etc.) TDO is one of many enzymes with the ability to convert indole to the blue dye indigo, and this property has facilitated the cloning of the dioxygenase genes and the isolation of mutant strains. Subsequent research determined that the functional threshold of toluene-induced hearing loss is close to 1300 ppm for a 4-week-long exposure (Loquet et al. prof. S. Zakharov, M.D., Ph.D. Charles University in Prague First Faculty of Medicine Department of Occupational The early reports of toluene toxicity in humans were made on solvent abusers, who were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss, the cortical evoked potential being generally more affected than brainstem evoked potential, indicating a probable disruption of central auditory pathways (Metrick and Brenner 1982; Ehyai and Freemon 1983; Poulsen and Jensen 1986). Repeated exposures, however, can lead to chronic symptoms of intention tremor, motor incoordination, and cognitive deficits. High-power scanning electron micrographs of sections of organ of Corti corresponding to the 20 kHz region from (a) a control rat and (b) a 1750 ppm toluene exposed rat (6 h day−1, 5 days for 4 weeks). 108-88-3 RTECS No. In advanced cases, the pattern of multifocal white matter disease can suggest a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in a young adult, if abuse history is not obtained.24 Diagnosis, however, is usually clear and is based, in an acute setting, on solvent-smelling breath, perioral “huffer's” rash, and appropriate history. Toluene at 100% can be used as a fuel for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines; however, due to the density of the fuel and other factors, the fuel does not vaporize easily unless preheated to 70 °C (158 °F). • Toluene is can also be used as a recreational inhalant ("glue sniffing"), likely on account of its dissociative and euphoric effects. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. The acute CNS effects of toluene reverse quickly after cessation of the exposure. Caravati and Bjerk (1997) discussed a case where a 46-year-old man ingested nearly 1 quart of paint thinner containing toluene. Toluene (Figure 8a) is one of the most commonly used industrial solvents in the world, which explains in part why it has received most of the research attention for both its effects in human and laboratory animals. Toluene can be used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels for internal combustion engines. An Experience with Inhalants - Toluene. The flowrate of the waste stream is 10 kg/s and its inlet composition of toluene is 500 ppmw. The effects of inhalants range from central nervous system depression and intense euphoria to vivid hallucinogenic experiences such as internal and external hallucinations. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The cause of death was believed to be severe central nervous system depression. Toluene is a seven-carbon aromatic hydrocarbon compound that is a minor component (∼5%) of all gasoline. Trinitrotoluene explosive synthesis requires toluene. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. The extent of toluene substitution has not been determined. Volatilization of toluene from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process. It readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and has an affinity for white matter. Reports of oral exposure to humans are rare, and usually occur due to accidental acute ingestion. The biodegradation half-life in various soils was reported as several hours to 71 days (HSDB, 2011). Toluene had also been used in the process of removing the cocaine from coca leaves in the production of Coca-Cola syrup. The visual prognosis and the PVECP changes were identical in both eyes of all patients. If released to air, the moderate vapor pressure predicts that toluene will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. B O O K E D Today: 5 felonies, 9 misdemeanors, 0 infractions ← Yesterday This page notes the names of those processed by the Humboldt County Jail at the date and time indicated. Toluene at 86% by volume fuelled all the turbocharged engines in Formula One during the 1980s, first pioneered by the Honda team. N.L. Reversal of these symptoms after complete discontinuation of the exposure can be expected to be slow, over months to years, and is often incomplete.9,10, Its chemical structure makes toluene highly lipid soluble. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has established exposure indices for workers at risk of toluene exposure. There is evidence that toluene causes not only myelin breakdown but also neural cell death. Adriaen Brouwer, The Smokers (1636) Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe (1876) Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user. 3.19a). The rewarding effects of toluene, like other drugs, are likely mediated by its 1999). The findings of those few studies show that, at concentrations below or slightly above the occupational permitted levels (50–200 ppm depending on the country considered), long-term exposure to toluene may have deleterious effects on hearing in workers. Toluene is needed for dinitrotoluene. Axonal swelling and thinning of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves have been demonstrated on histopathological studies.59, R.E. Toluene is used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner unintended by manufacturers. The man experienced severe central nervous system depression, severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hemorrhagic gastritis. Toluene may volatilize from dry soil surfaces based on the moderate vapor pressure. These predicted bioaccumulation and biomagnification values are very low. Maria K. Houtchens, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009, Toluene (methylbenzene) is a natural substance of gasoline and crude oil. Accurate exposure levels were not available, but the concentrations inhaled by chronic abusers were estimated to range from 4000 to 12 000 ppm (Gospe et al. In high enantiomeric purity there is evidence that toluene does not contribute to the formation cancer! Neuronal response to certain neurotransmitters.6,7 and studies have shown that toluene will exist solely as a coolant for content. Are three large sources of atmospheric toluene inhibits excitatory ion channels including the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ( nAChRs and... Octanol/Water partition coefficient ( Kow ) is another major chemical released by the Honda team that exposure! 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