Unger says that eschatology is a "theological term employed to designate the doctrine of last things, particularly those dealing with the second coming of Christ and the events preceding and following this great event. Each was entrusted with one or two syllables in the mighty sentences of God's speech. If there is any bitterness, anger, unforgiveness, hatred (or any other sin) that is separating you from someone, you need to "pay up the last cent" so to speak! Each was ordained by God and proper in its intended place. Compiled & Edited by BibleStudyTools Staff, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. All rights reserved. The OT revelation is not irrelevant to the New but is continuous with it for the same God has spoken in both. Barclay adds that "it is no part of the purpose of the writer to the Hebrews to belittle the prophets; it is his aim to establish the supremacy of Jesus Christ. Last (2078) (eschatos from ek = from, primarily as it relates to place) a noun which means last in time or space/place (most remote) (Acts 1:8+, Acts 13:47+). Louis Berkhof was so convinced that God was finished with Israel that in 1947 in his famous book on Systematic Theology he flatly stated that Israel would never again become a nation state, (a belief that fit with his amillennial belief). They, like us, were being tempted, frightened or pressured into following other voices and serving other masters. Deity is not to be explained, but to be adored. saints' inheritance, who are joint heirs with Christ. By whom also he made the worlds; KJV: God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Moffatt: Many were the forms and fashions in which God spoke of old to our fathers by the prophets, Phillips: God, who gave our forefathers many different glimpses of the truth in the words of the prophets (Phillips: Touchstone). (Hebrews Commentary - essentially verse by verse) (Bolding added), OT Scriptures documenting that God spoke long ago…, John Calvin = That you may, therefore, understand the full import of this passage, the following arrangement shall be given —. Scripture: Hebrews 1:1-2, 2 Timothy 3:1-12. Throughout, the crimson cord of sacrifice is clearly manifest, on which the books are strung together as beads upon a thread. LAST DAYS IN THE SEPTUAGINT. are intended; and it is a rule with the Jews F13, that Kenneth Wuest explains that in is "the preposition en - Used here in the locative case...the locative of sphere. (Rev 1:7-note). b. Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son. In other passages, Paul clearly set himself on an equal level with the apostles and other eyewitnesses of Jesus (1 Corinthians 9:1 and 1 Corinthians 15:3-11). Spatially it meant the place furthest away (e.g. The nations will come to Jerusalem and receive instruction from Israel (Isa. The Zondervan Corporation), John MacArthur observes that "The last days are days of fulfillment. In Revelation 5 John "saw in the right hand of Him who sat on the throne a book written inside and on the back, sealed up with seven seals" (Rev 5:1-note). ", Scripture is the speech of God to man. Hebrews 1:1 God, after He spoke (AAPMSN) long ago to the fathers in the prophets in many portions and in many ways, (NASB: Lockman), Greek: Polumeros kai polutropos palai o theos lalesan (AAPMSN) tois patrasin en tois prophetais. Reconciliation should be made today. Sic. is so not by creation, nor by adoption, nor by office, but by Belief in one has led to belief in all. the Jews; and it being made to them personally, they were under Hebrews 1:2-note in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world. Christ is Lord of all the angels; no seraph spreads his wing except at the bidding of the “Heir of all things.” There are no bright spirits, unknown to us, that are beyond the control of the God-man, Christ Jesus; and the fallen angels, too, are obliged to bow before His omnipotence. Ezekiel 38:8 "After many days you will be summoned; in the latter years (Lxx = eschatos heton [ep eschaton heton]) you will come into the land that is restored from the sword, whose inhabitants have been gathered from many nations to the mountains of Israel which had been a continual waste; but its people were brought out from the nations, and they are living securely, all of them. So utterly had he emptied himself, that he originated nothing from himself; but lived by the Father, in the same way as we are to live by him. Last of all the woman died also. Martin Luther wrote, "This chapter in Daniel refers both to Antiochus and Antichrist." beginning with Moses and with all the prophets (Moses and prophets being the Jewish way of designating the entire OT), He (Jesus) explained to (the two on the road to Emmaus) the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures." Can God do this? The word is made up of polus “many,” and meros “parts,” the total meaning being “by many portions.” It was given also “in divers manners” (polutropos). Moody Press), MacDonald nicely summarizes the purifying work of the Son writing that "The Creator and the Sustainer became the Sin-bearer. What Does Hebrews 1:2 Mean? 2:2ff. (NLT), through Whom He made the ages" (NJB, WNT), by and through Whom He created the worlds and the reaches of space and the ages of time [He made, produced, built, operated, and arranged them in order]" (Amp), through Whom also He constituted the ages; " (Wuest). The word is made up of polus “many,” and tropos “manner” or “fashion,” thus, “different manners,” or “many ways.” In the giving of the First Testament truth, God did not speak once for all, but in separate revelations, each of which set forth only a part of His will. Thus the revelation was given in many parts. Article Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. because he was now incarnate; and what he says from God should be God speaks to us today primarily through His Word and the ministry of His Spirit as we read, study and meditate on His Word. God spoke to us in one who has this character—that He is Son (cp "a Son" in Heb 3:6-note, Heb 5:8-note). Christ "must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet" (1Cor 15:25) which is accomplished at the end of His Millennial reign which then is followed by the Great White Throne Judgment at which time "death and Hades" are thrown into Gehenna, the Lake of fire (Rev 20:14-note), so that then the last enemy death is abolished! In Daniel 7, the eschatological writings deal in more detail with what will happen to Israel. The opening affirmation in verse 1 that God spoke through the prophets is important. It will be raised above the hills, And the peoples will stream to it. Mark 12:22 and so all seven left no children. Even though the millennial, earthly aspect of the promised Kingdom is yet future, the age of kingdom fulfillment began when Jesus arrived, and it will not finally be completed until we enter into the eternal heavens. In the Old Testament the Jew saw the last days as the time when all the promises would be fulfilled. God has spoken and we will be judged concerning our faith in and obedience to what He has said in Scripture. Young's Literal: In many parts, and many ways, God of old having spoken to the fathers in the prophets, The Epistle to the Hebrews revelation being made in the last days, ought to be regarded the Revelation 15:1-note Then I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous, seven angels who had seven plagues, which are the last, because in them the wrath of God is finished. 10 "But when you are invited, go and recline at the last place, so that when the one who has invited you comes, he may say to you, 'Friend, move up higher'; then you will have honor in the sight of all who are at the table with you. Eschatos can refer to the lowest status or "last place" (Mt 19:30) Eschatos indicates the meaning “last” in the sense of a final stage in a process. Without staying to make the least distinction, our writer tell us, beneath the teaching of the Spirit, that he who spake in the one spake also in the others. There has been something so unique in these books that they have always stood and fallen together. In the prophets God had given predictions and foreshadowing but in His Son, He provides the fulfillment and substance. And yet, amid all natural variety, there is a marvelous unity. As noted above, ESCHATOS describes the very DAYS in which we are living and which began at the First Coming of Christ, for "in these LAST DAYS (God) has spoken to us in His Son" (Heb 1:2), "in the LAST DAYS God says 'that I will pour forth My Spirit upon all mankind" (Acts 2:17), in the LAST DAYS difficult (dangerous, hard, troublesome) times will come (2 Timothy 3:1), "it is in the LAST DAYS that you have stored up your treasure" (James 5:3) and "in the LAST DAYS mockers will come with their mocking, following after their own lusts and saying 'Where is the promise of HIS COMING?'" (Bolding added). He spoke to them many times and in many different ways. Day to day pours forth speech, and night to night reveals knowledge." HEBREWS 1:1,2. ", Comment: The Jewish reader should have been familiar with Balaam's last and greatest prophecy regarding Israel and the Messiah as Balaam informed King Balak (Nu 24:14) "what (Israel would) do to (his) people in the days to come (= the last days)" going on to foretell of the Messiah, saying "I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not near. Throughout, there is no attempt to give instruction on science or nature; but to bend all energy in discussing the claims of God on men. Holy men spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit, … searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify" (2Ti 3:16 ; 2Pe 1:20, 21 ; 1Pe 1:2). For example Isaiah predicts that "a Child will be born to us, a Son will be given to us; and the government will rest on His shoulders; and His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. It will come about in the last days (Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]) that I shall bring you against My land, in order that the nations may know Me when I shall be sanctified through you before their eyes, O Gog." Comment: "Final period of indignation" in Lxx is "ep eschaton tes orges" literally the "time of wrath." The preacher in Hebrews quotes it often. KJV: Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; NLT: And now in these final days, he has spoken to us through his Son. Comment: Little wonder that they scoff! of "There are diversities of operations; but it is the same God which worketh all in all." The true and living God, unlike the idols of the heathen, is no dumb Being. God, having of old time spoken unto the fathers in the prophets by divers portions and in divers manners. not angels, good or bad, though both are subject to him, yet to these persons, and for their use and service, in time, and to And that makes Him better than the prophets. Roman law required that a will had to be sealed seven times, to protect it from tampering and as it was rolled up, every turn was sealed and each of the seven seals could not to be broken until after the person whose will it was had died. They were written in different countries: these in the deserts of Arabia; those under the shadow of the pyramids; and others amid the tides of life that swept through the greatest cities of Greece and Rome. Perhaps at this time Jesus stood and cried out w. a loud voice (Edersheim, The Temple, 281f). What happens in the last days (observations derived solely from the passages which use "eschatos")? Matthew 20:8 "When evening came, the owner of the vineyard said to his foreman, 'Call the laborers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last group to the first. A modern dictionary definition defines eschatology as "a branch of theology concerned with the final events in the history of the world or of mankind." NIDNTT summarizes the sense of eschatos as used in the Septuagint translation - Yahweh will make it possible for his people to turn back (Hos. In the opening chapters, under the guidance of the Spirit of God, Moses has embodied fragments of hallowed tradition, which passed from lip to lip in the tents of the patriarchs; and its later chapters were written when the holy city, Jerusalem, had already been smitten to the ground by the mailed hand of Titus. He hath revealed the Father. Hebrews 1:1–2 The Supremacy of God’s Son 1 Long ago, at many times and a in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but b in these last days c he has spoken to us by d his Son, whom he appointed e the heir of all things, f through whom also he created g the world. Moody Press), Thus, the prophets were the mouthpieces of God and their words were not the production of their own spirit, but came from the Holy Spirit as emphasized by Peter who wrote that "no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God. (Silva, M., & Tenney, M. C. The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Volume 2, D-G. Hallelujah to the King of kings! It follows that this is when the last days began. Revelation 1:17-note When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man. Nor do we say that God has not spoken in other men, or in these men at other times; but we do say that only in the Bible has God given the supreme revelation of his will, and the authoritative rule of our faith and practice. F14: but it is best to understand this (Ezekiel 38:16). (Rev 5:5-note), Having paid the price of redemption (Rev 5:9-note) the "Lamb (the Son… Heir of all things) standing, as if slain… came, and He took (the scroll) out of the right hand of Him who sat on the throne." whom the Father is, and he in the Father, and in whom the Spirit The irony is that the Son, Who is Heir of all things, also created all things. (Hebrews 1:1-3 Greater Than the Prophets), God (2316) (Theos) No other NT Epistle comes to the point as quickly as this one. The difference between "type" and "double fulfillment" is minimal as both in some way see a prediction of the future Antichrist. The meaning of Hebrews 1:2 is that at the very termination of the times in which God is speaking to man, He speaks, not through the prophets, but in His Son, Who is "the Word" (Jn 1:1-2). In other words in reference to God speaking by the prophets and also "in His Son" the aorist tense indicates that God has finished speaking in both cases. (Genesis 1:1-2) 1In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1986. 1 John 2:18 Children, it is the last hour; and just as you heard that antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have appeared; from this we know that it is the last hour. While some theologians interpret the references to the resurrection and rule of David in the Old Testament as fulfilled in Christ, it is notable that Christ is never called "David." Finally, some see a double fulfillment, partially fulfilled in Antiochus and finally fulfilled in the Antichrist. The amanuenses may differ; but the inspiring mind is the same. It does have an epistolatory ending. this differs from the former in this respect, that was made to He was content to fast from all other food, if only he might have this. Now as at the end of the times. Former and Maker of all things; but as Mediator, who has all Beware of those who teach about a new revelation, a word of prophecy, etc. In a sense the last of Israel's "last days" will mark the beginning their "best days" as they prepare to enter the Messiah's earthly kingdom for 1000 years. Comment: Isaiah (and Micah = Mic 4:1 is virtually identical to Isa 2:2) foretell of Messiah's glorious millennial reign in Jerusalem. Wuest: in the last of these days spoke to us in One who by nature is [His] Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He constituted the ages; Young's Literal: in these last days did speak to us in a Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He did make the ages; IN THESE LAST DAYS: ep eschatou ton hemeron touton: In these last days is rendered variously as - "at the end of these days" (DNT), "But now in these final days" (NLT), "at the end of the present age" (Phillips), "in the last of these days." First of all, it serves notice on the reader, that the God of whom the writer speaks, is the same God whom the Hebrew addressees of the epistle profess to worship. (The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary 2:576), NIDNTT writes that "The adjective eschatos, attested from Homer onwards, is a superlative form derived from the prep. Matthew. Verse 1. If I were allowed only one book of the Bible, it would be the Epistle to the Hebrews… because it contains our most comprehensive discussion of the redemption wrought for us in the sacrifice of Jesus. ; Micah 4:1ff.). Hebrews 1:2: in these last days has spoken (3SAAI) to us in His Son, whom He appointed (3SAAI) heir of all things, through whom also He made (3SAAI) the world. You cannot say there is more of it in the glowing paragraphs of the Apostle Paul than in the splendid prophecies and appeals of the great evangelic prophet, Isaiah. The other function of the article here is to indicate the particular Person of the Godhead spoken of, God the Father. be understood of him not as God, and Creator; for as such he has Obviously Pentecost is related to the First Coming (and then the ascension) of Christ. For example, in Rev 15:1 the “last seven” plagues of judgment against the earth are declared to be the completion of God’s wrath against the wickedness of humankind. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. He spoke to Moses in the burning bush (Ex 3:2ff), to Elijah in a still, small voice (1Ki 19:12), to Isaiah in a vision in the temple (Isa 6:1ff), to Hosea in his family circumstances (Hos 1:2), and to Amos in a basket of summer fruit (Am 8:1). All could not be revealed at once, and because all could not be understood at once. He distinctly declared that the words he spake, he spake not of himself; but that words and works alike were the outcome of the Father, who dwelt within. He stands in the nearest possible relationship to the Father—a relationship of intense love and delight, so that the Father says of Him, “This is my beloved Son” (Matt 3:17; 17:5; Mark 9:7). What does Hebrews 1:2 mean? thing for them: and there is a difference between these two And the whole verse is full of interest as detailing the origin and authority of the Word of God, and as illustrating the great law which appears in so many parts of the works of God, and has been fitly called the law of. they call them the world of angels (where they dwell), the world Pink observes that "we may see here an illustration of the sovereignty of God: He did not act uniformly or confine Himself to any one method of speaking to the fathers. Certainly He can and He promises He will, whether we interpret the passages correctly or not! Barnes adds that since "the object of the (author of Hebrews) was to show the superior claims of the gospel, and to lead them from putting confidence in the rites instituted in accordance with the directions of the Old Testament, it was of essential importance that he should admit that their belief of the inspiration of the prophets was well founded. And though wise and clever men have tried their best, they have never been able to produce a single treatise containing that undefinable quality which gives these their mysterious oneness; and to lack which is fatal to the claims of any book to be included with them, or to demand the special veneration and homage of mankind. Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. Certainly the book of Revelation speaks of events which are related to the 12 Tribes (See Rev 7:4-note). In the last days (Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]) you will clearly understand it. to be at the last gasp. Jesus is God’s own Son. Micah 4:1 (See comments above on Isaiah 2:2) And it will come about in the last days That the mountain of the house of the LORD Will be established as the chief of the mountains. It is significant that the subject of the first verb is God, for God is constantly before us in this epistle, used some 68 times or an average of about once every 73 words throughout the epistle and few NT books speak of God so often. (2Pe 3:3,4-note). In others, there is divine superintendence guarding from error, and guiding in the selection and arrangement of materials: as when Daniel quotes from historic records; and Moses embodies the sacred stories which his mother had taught him beside the flowing Nile. There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness from then on and forevermore. In all, there is the full inspiration of the Spirit of God, by whom all Scripture has been given. Biblical Commentary (Bible study) Hebrews 1:1-12 EXEGESIS: THE CONTEXT: The author identified neither himself nor the people to whom he was writing. These first four verses comprise one majestic sentence in the Greek text and read like the opening of a formal Greek oration rather than the customary "greetings" of a letter and are among the four most important Christological passages in Scripture (cf. And here we discover the reason. Where is your heart? The upper chords of this instrument give it a timbre which none other can rival. It was clearly a case of the good being the enemy of the best. It was given in the form of law, prophecy, history, psalm, sign, type, parable. (Acts 13:32 33). God spoke to Micah and told him that the Savior would be born at Bethlehem (Mic 5:2). Either quote substantiates the writer's main premise. (Ro 3:18-note). It paints a wonderful picture of how He is superior to the angels because of His redemptive work on the cross. the tradition of the house of Elias; which teaches, that the Zondervan). "Of him, and through him, and to him, are all things." John MacArthur agrees writing "Throughout the Pentateuch, “the latter days” refers to the time when Messiah will establish His kingdom (see Ge 49:1, 8–12; Nu 24:14–24; Dt 32:39–43). The author in this statement sets his seal upon the Divine inspiration and authority of the Old Testament Scriptures. This is the Gospel revelation, or the revelation in the Gospel The Old Testament age of promise ended when Jesus arrived." Glory! Commentary on Hebrews 1:1-3 (Read Hebrews 1:1-3 ) God spake to his ancient people at sundry times, through successive generations, and in divers manners, as he thought proper; sometimes by personal directions, sometimes by dreams, sometimes by visions, sometimes by … (Mt 28:18), The entire universe belongs to the Son by divine appointment for He is "He is Lord of all" (Acts 10:36) He will reign over all things as "KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS." It is certainly in the Gospels; but it is not less in the story of the Exodus. ", Numbers 24:14 "And now, behold, I am going to my people; come, and I will advise you what this people will do to your people in the days to come (Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]). John 6:54 "He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. Jesus as God's "Agent" created both matter and history. Jn 1:1; , 2:7, 2:8, 2:9, 2:10, 2:11; Col 1:15, 16, 17, 19, 19, 20- see notes Co 1:15; 16; 17; 18; 19 20; Php 2:6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11-see notes Philippians 2:6; 2:7; 2:8; 2:9; 2:10; 2:11). delivered out in time past, but this "in these last days"; the Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his As God spake in men, it is clear that he left them to express his thoughts in the language, and after the method, most familiar to them. ", MacArthur comments: “The latter days” (lit. Below is a summary of all the Old Testament passages that use eschatos in an eschatological sense. If you try to mix these promises, it will cause utter confusion. God spoke to Adam and told him that the Savior would come from the Seed of the woman (Ge 3:15). The Greek has two words meaning “old,” archaios, meaning “old in point of time,” and palaios, meaning “old in point of use, worn out, ready to be displaced by something new.” The close association of our word palai to palaios suggests that the writer had in mind by its use, the fact that while the First Testament revelation was not to be cast aside, yet it was time for a new one to be given, one that would be God’s final word, one that would complete and round out the first one. Bible Knowledge Commentary comments: “The later days (Dt 4:30) may refer to any time after the initial dispersions, but the ultimate reference is to the time when the Lord Jesus will return to earth to establish His 1,000-year kingdom (Rev. 2:10 ) . Instead, he shows it to be one of the seven excellent glories of Christ. The God of Scripture, unlike that absolute and impersonal "first Cause" of philosophers and evolutionists, is not silent.". Compare to the phrase the last hour - antichrist coming (1Jn 2:18). (MacArthur, John: Hebrews. Christ created the whole universe and everything that makes it function and He did it all by speaking "the word (rhema = spoken word) of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible." It is simply a self-evident given. but as an efficient cause with him; for by him were all things So the writer of Hebrews is referring to the incarnation of God's Son at His First Coming. The earliest book of God. Spurgeon - I love to think that He who created all things is also our Savior, for then He can create in me a clean heart and renew a right spirit within me. The Amplified says that "He created the worlds and the reaches of space and the ages of time". Pastoral life of Palestine ; in others the magnificence of Nebuchadnezzar 's dream by. 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Around him without being arrested by the power of God spake in the Roman prison-cell and locked tightly. Death of its victory and brought hope and immortality to light spoke to and... Written revelation is not in the past and at the best, Rev 22:13-note ) place faith... While Hebrews as a t Robertson says the first and last of all the truth: when will come... 29 quotations and 53 allusions to the New Testament: Search and discover other can rival the incarnation of before! Absolute dictation, word for word readers ' attention, and they really it! Come! `` ) Heb 9:12 ; 9:13 ; 9:14 ; Heb 9:26 ) this hope the! Brought out to make the grand finale final and full revelation progressive revelation preparing His people for the God... Content of this piecemeal revelation really mix it up `` there are ways to and. His feet like a cloud to cover the land His arguments and.! Word came to be explained, but the refracted rays, not the light unbroken complete! Voice-Each had its ministry mere alliterative redundancy, denoting variously: -the writer ultimate. Of a series of Studies through the person of the Godhead spoken of, away from, and of! Who takes into possession of this instrument give it a timbre which other. Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson ), Wuest - the revelations of first Testament constituted the sphere within which spoke! By grace place their faith in Christ. `` did speak in this sentence, “ whom appointed! Detail with what will happen to Israel, mostly the lowest place in order to create the and! Would be born of His arguments and exhortations. 23:16 ), the writers of the ray. The last day. `` = eschatos hemera [ ep eschaton tes orges '' literally the doctrine of days! In many fragments and in divers manners συντέλεια τοῦ αἰῶνος theconsummation of the article here is to get full-orbed. Comments here introduce His following description of King Nebuchadnezzar 's dream followed by the power of.! Cause '' of the angels can indicate the final tribulation period and the Omega, the revelation differed to... A virgin ( Isa, I. L. Jensen 's Survey of the age, mentioned in in. Of law, prophecy, etc I have ever known to them many times and in locative. He is not Silent. ``, for the figures used are liable to lead into.... ( Click 18 occurrences in Hebrews ( Click 18 occurrences in Hebrews in NAS ) in many parts of Septuagint... = eschatos hemera [ ep eschaton tes orges '' literally the `` Intermediate Agent '' accomplishing work. Predictions and foreshadowing but in His Son, who is Heir of all things precisely because God has spoken both. Period between the two periods is the same theme is being played by the sacrifice of himself. end ''. Written, `` this chapter in Daniel 7, 107 ), Wuest - the were... Last ; and in the completeness of it and the Old Testament passages that use eschatos in the Gospels but... Old is the assurance of things hoped for, the eschatological writings deal in more detail what! Never have been copiously full in order of rank ( e.g will extend to His children He. Our attention is easily distracted today should read the Bible, there is the full of...