In Europe and developing countries, the incineration and landfill techniques used for management of plastics waste covered about 74%, despite advanced effect. 0000014424 00000 n The increase in mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation behaviors of the composites was attributed to improved interfacial adhesion and compatibility. 0000087228 00000 n 0000086791 00000 n endstream endobj 251 0 obj <>stream An application of recycled PP is dependent on good compatibility with modified materials with synergistic effects. THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES APPLICATION CENTER With the growth of applications and demand of thermoplastic composites (TPC), increasing amounts of production scrap are expected to be generated. 0000087904 00000 n 0000002386 00000 n 0000007471 00000 n Available from: Production, Characterization and Innovative Applications, Recycling of modified virgin and waste thermoplastics, Microstructural behavior of recycled thermoplastic matrix and its modifications, 10% PP + 5% graft copolymer using twin screw extruder, 10% PP + 5% EPDM using twin screw extruder, Department of Biomedical Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. �4 �}n�֘����+~A�����X�n`_��⻃}w���`��y��d�?�*���@%����ɏ�e*�(3 �/s��kШ��/C3ǩ+c�����P��{#���,p��ꤋ�}�H6�~����%I�ֶ�5�и'�ֹ �;!T! Modification of recycled HDPE with treated natural fiber using NaOH, SLS, acetic anhydride, CaCO3 filler, and zeolites as well as synthetic fibers is characterized with improvement in polymer dispersion, even distribution of fibers, interfacial adhesion, fiber tearing, micro-crack formation, modifier content and size, nature of the modifier, and reduction in void formation [20, 43, 72, 73, 74, 75]. @ 6I An increase in recycled PET content caused a decrease in melt flow index or rheological properties of the aggregate [29]. *Address all correspondence to: taofikoladimeji@gmail.com, Edited by Gülşen Akın Evingür, Önder Pekcan and Dimitris S. Achilias. The process begins with sorting the various items by their resin content. 0000087111 00000 n Annealing effect involves changes in spherulite size of HDPE material after heat effect, and aged surface shows loss of gloss observed as a result of environmental effect through oxidative stress and disappearance of crystalline molecule of the HDPE materials produced by a surface contraction. The ThermoPlastic composites Research Center (TPRC) and the ThermoPlastic composites Application Center (TPAC) developed a new recycling process for thermoplastic composites offering high mechanical performance and design freedom at low cost. trailer Plastic recycling is broken up into a few distinct steps. A process which includes comminuting a first thermoplastic material, e.g. In a paper Choosing the Correct Thermoplastic Composite, Steve Maki, VP Technology, RTP Company, discusses several fundamental considerations to help users avoid pure guesswork in selecting the best thermoplastic matrix for their applications. Techniques for modifications of thermoplastics may be due to the use of different waste or virgin thermoplastics and natural materials, thereby producing composites with enhanced properties and durability [35]. This method involves decomposition of waste polymers to lower-molecular-weight species for reuse with applications of solvents like benzene, chlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, toluene, and xylene called dissolution/reprecipitation (DR) or solubilization before pyrolysis (applied high temperature and pressure in the absence of oxygen) [25]. The use of wood fillers or fibers as natural modifiers have been reported to improve mechanical properties of recycled PCV rather the recyclability [53], and slightly reduction in mechanical (tensile, flexural, hardness and impact) and structural properties (i.e., decrease in molecular weight due to molecular chain scission caused by shear stress involved in reprocessing) [54]. The use of little quantity of virgin thermoplastics provides a reasonable performance with bitumen but is uneconomical compared with only bitumen. 0000085044 00000 n 0000085444 00000 n Chemical recycling (pyrolysis) had been a major technology for waste or postconsumer LDPE to save the environment, but not cost-effective; emissions of some constituents and required additives or modifiers (catalysts) for considerable yields of the products in many applications [24, 30]. The increase in solid waste generation in which plastics are included, in the urban area, is dependent on the increase in migration from rural to urban area, rate of consumption and standard of living, lifestyle, population density, and climatic changes [5, 6] (see Table 1). Pipeline blockages or clogs may be difficult to remove. But it has yet to be used commercially on a large scale. This might be uneconomical. Thermoplastic recycling process chart. 0000009033 00000 n ��Ò�)�j6�KȐ��� ��N�OzG�hGb���Lb��(�-=�tqP���-TJʢ.O!�s���0�Q��T�=����ň���G�LaN The thermoplastic CFRP parts have to be grinded down to small fragments prior reprocessing. Step 1: Sorting and pre-drying on the Champs Jouault site; Step 2: Opening the bales at the Minot recycling site This indicated the enhanced compatibility which corroborates the improvement in physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the modified recycled thermoplastics and dictates its applications. T1 - Recycling of thermoplastic composite laminates. Licensee IntechOpen. 0000086158 00000 n This interfacial adhesion has a direct relation to compatibility. Hence, the quality and performance of the recycled aggregates or composites are enhanced. Recycling or reforming a thermoplastic is like chipping out the mortar and re-laying the bricks. %PDF-1.4 %���� There are other methods of recycling thermoplastic that cannot be done to all types. The wet process involves blending of thermoplastics and bitumen in a mixer and then mixing of thermoplastic modified bitumen to aggregates, while the latter involves incorporation of thermoplastics to very hot aggregates prior to mixing with bitumen [56]. Recyclability of PVC waste can be achieved mechanically without modifications or use of new plasticizer since the separation of other mixed plastics is possible through triboelectrostatic technology [50, 52]. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. 0000287065 00000 n Increase in density can be ascribed to chemocrystallization, annealing effects and changes in lamellar orientation, fiber loading, moisture absorption, and aging of HDPE products [35]. The use of compatibilizer in virgin and recycled polyolefins influenced the quality of the composites based on technology and recycled waste of LDPE by the addition of EPDM compatibilizer [41]. The increase in commercial vehicles and road usage with construction resulted to increase in demand of bitumen for pavement and road construction. Recycling and generation of thermoplastics [11]. The highest mechanical properties of recycled LDPE composites have been reported for wood polymer composites with virgin PP (5%) and lower mechanical properties with higher virgin PP content of 55 and 71.5% compared to PE. The reduction in photodegradation of thermoplastics by ultraviolet absorber as an antioxidant shows a retardation effect of oxidation [36]. Globally, disposal of postconsumer or waste thermoplastics into the environment is alarming and posed a serious economic, environmental, health, and social burden. 0000092839 00000 n Thermoplastic recycling process chart. However, the poor activities of government agencies for a safe environment may be attributed to improper funds, inadequate facilities and human resources, low technology know how, and taxation system [2]. Known as TPC-Cycle, the project targets production scrap by developing a recycling route for high-end and high volume markets. ���"��U�/�p׹NN�8LVa�[ΣB^��T�@yCE�l�F��x]U��R�M&ɔr�Nb�څf,�f���m�ؠ��` X�U0 Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. The mechanical properties of composites of recycled PET improved with increase in incorporated nano silicate (SiO2) content blended with ABS [61]. However, one of the advantages of thermoplastics in comparison to thermoset materials is their recyclability. This process remaining to be the most popular as it ensures simplicity, low cost, and applicability to clean uncontaminated single-type waste. Sorting or separation before recycling through manual [34] application of principle of density and solubilization with the use of solvents (hexane, benzene, xylene, and toluene) provides solution to contamination [2] but not cost effect and risk. Thermoplastic compounds can be tailored to provide multiple property enhancements in a single material. 0000093185 00000 n Importance of Recycling Plastic. 242 102 The policies of the government on the environment are merely by mouth with poor implementation. The tested properties are compared with targeted near virgin properties of the processed plastic material to determine any difference(s) therebetween. There is loss of mechanical properties for composites of LDPE and HDPE modified with PP which is due to incompatibility of recycled PP/LDPE and PP/HDPE composites [39]. Y1 - 2019/10/3. The use of different waste or virgin thermoplastics seems to be uneconomical due to cost of blended and non-compatibility of the thermoplastics which may require a new compatibilizer. The novel application of natural materials (filler or fibers) is to enhance undesirable properties and poor biodegradation of LDPE matrix. The decrease in tensile strength with increasing starch content in starch/LDPE composites attributed to incompatibility of the hydrophobic LDPE and hydrophilic starch and the increase in stiffness attributed to better dispersion of starch in LDPE matrix [45]. It can be deduced that natural fillers or fibers contain a compatibilizer which has not been identified. Instead, thermoplastic chains are held together by van der waal forces, weak attractions between molecules. 0000085121 00000 n The improvement in PP performance has been achieved through modification techniques by incorporation of grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH), clay-based nano-fillers, inorganic nanoscale particles, and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) blends using organically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite nanoclays) as compatibilizers for the purpose of improving compatibility, mechanical, crystallization, and melting behavior of PP composites [64, 65, 66]. The enhancement in mechanical properties and performance of the HDPE matrix and composite product by additives (sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and acetic anhydride) have also been attributed to increased interfacial adhesion coupled with its improved water absorption [21], biodegradability, biocompatibility, antimicrobial activity, and non-toxicity with the use of chitosan compounds [38]. 0000015027 00000 n The density of recycled virgin and waste HDPE is within the range of 0.02–0.96 g/cm3 [36, 39]. 0000004156 00000 n Most often, it is basically a form of downgrading: significantly shortening mechanical properties and fiber length. 0000086673 00000 n endstream endobj 243 0 obj <>/Metadata 149 0 R/Pages 148 0 R/StructTreeRoot 151 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 244 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 245 0 obj <> endobj 246 0 obj <> endobj 247 0 obj <> endobj 248 0 obj <> endobj 249 0 obj <>stream Mechanical properties of modified virgin and waste HDPE materials. It may or may not be necessarily separated depending on desired products and quality. Recycling and generation of thermoplastics [11]. This functional group dictates chemical reaction between the polymers and modifier, resulted to change in absorption peak correlate change in strength and modulus of the thermoplastics. The use of rice husk, bambara, and mahogany fillers with improved tensile strength and modulus, flexural strength and modulus, and hardness with reduction in impact strength has been reported [47, 48, 49]. PTT is an aromatic polyester with combined properties of PET and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). Taofik Oladimeji Azeez (September 27th 2019). 0000088458 00000 n Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a transparent semicrystalline, long-chain thermoplastic polyester which can be produced by a polymerization of terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol and remains the most used thermoplastics in many applications [55, 56]. 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